General Science

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VITAMINS

The Vitamins are necessary auxiliaries in metabolism. They combine with specific proteins, as parts of various oxidative enzyme systems which are concerned with the breakdown of carbohydrates, proteins, and fat in the body. Thus, they are intimately involved in the mechanism which releases energy, carbon dioxide and water as the end products of metabolism.
Vitamins can be broadly divided into Fat Soluble and Water Soluble Vitamins. Vitamins A D E and K are fat-soluble vitamins. Vitamins B ( B1 B2 B6 B12 ) and C are water-soluble.
Vitamin - A
Year 1913

Retinol
Main Metabolic Function Essential for normal growth and development.
For normal function of epithelical cells and normal development of teeth and bones.
Prevents Night blindness.
Deficiency - Effects Retarded growth.
Reduced resistance to infection.
Abnormal function of gastrointestinal, and respiratory tracts due to altered epithelial membranes.
Interferes with production of "night purple".
Available Milk, Egg yolk, Ghee, Butter, Carrots, Tomatoes, Leafy and Yellow vegetables, Cod liver oil and Fresh fruits.
Nature Fat-Soluble
Year 1936

Thiamin
Main Metabolic Function An important aid in carbohydrate metabolism.
Needed for Proper functioning of the digestive tract and nervous system.
Beriberi.
Loss of muscle.
Deficiency - Effects Loss of appetite.
Impaired digestion of starches and sugars.
Various nervous disorder coordination.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin - B2
Year 1935

Riboflavin
Main Metabolic Function Needed in formation of certain enzymes and in cellular oxidation.
Prevents inflammation of oral mucous membranes and the tongue.
Deficiency - Effects Impaired growth, lassitude and weakness.
Causes cheillosis or glossittis.
May result in Photophobia and cataracts.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin - B6
Year 1934

Pyridoxine
Main Metabolic Function Acts as do other B vitamins.
To break down protein, carbohydrate and fat.
Acts as a catalyst in the formation of niacin from tryptophan.
Deficiency - Effects Increased irritability, convulsions and peripheral neuritis.
Anorexia, nausea and vomiting.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin - B12
Year 1948

Cyanocobalamin
Main Metabolic Function Essential for development of red blood cells.
Required for maintenance of skin, nerve tissues, bone and muscles.
Deficiency - Effects Results in pernicious anaemia.
Weakness, fatigue, sore and cracked lips.
Available Peas, Beans and Cereals.
Nature Water-Soluble
Vitamin - C
Year 1919

Ascorbic Acid
Main Metabolic Function Needed for form the cementing substance, collagen, in various tissues (skin, dentine, cartilage and bone matrix).
Assists in woundhealing and bone fractures.
Deficiency - Effects Lowered resistance to infections.
Susceptibility to dental cavities, pyotthea and bleeding gums.
Delayed wound healing.
Specific treatment for Scurvy.
Available Fresh vegetables, Lemon, Orange, Tomatoes, Cabbage , Turnip and Lettuce (Beetroot).
Nature Water-Soluble
Year 1925

Cholecalciferol
Main Metabolic Function Requlates absorption of calcium and phosphorus from the intestinal tract.
Affords antiachitic activity.
Deficiency - Effects Interferes with utilisation of calcium and phosphorus in bone and teeth formation.
Development of bone disease, rickets and caries.
Available Butter, Milk, Ghee, Cod liver oil, Yolk of Eggs and also in Sunrays.
Nature Fat-Soluble
Vitamin - E
Year 1936

Tocopherols
Main Metabolic Function Protects tissues, cell membranes and Vitamin A against peroxidation.
Helps strengthen red blood cells.
Deficiency - Effects Decreased red blood cell resistance to rupture.
Available Germinating Wheat.
Nature Fat-Soluble
Vitamin - K
Year 1935

Phytomenadione
Main Metabolic Function Essential for formation of normal amounts of prothrombin and blood coagulation.
Deficiency - Effects diminished blood clotting time.
Increased incidence of hemorrhages.
Available Fish, Wheat and Oats.
Nature Fat-Soluble

Related Web Terms
Vitamins Vitamin - A Vitamin - B6 Vitamin - B1 Metabolic Function Deficiency - Effects Vitamin - B2 Vitamin - K Vitamin - E Vitamin - D Vitamin - C Vitamin - B12 Vitamin Nature carbohydrates oxidative enzyme systems Proteins
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